Programming Language

Programming language is used to communicate with the computer. Programming language has it’s own rules and conditions. Programmers write these languages on the computer using the code editor.

Let’s say, Indians use Hindi language to communicate with each other, in USA people use English language to communicate with each other, in China people use Chinese language to communicate with each other.

We use programming language to make any software or any application or any website. The programming language read by the computer and then computer communicate with our software or application or website and give output.

Programming language is used by a programmer or developer. There are many kinds of programming languages which a programmer use to develop a software and a website and an application to run on the computer.

Example: Java, Python, C++, C, HTML & CSS, PHP, Perl.

These all are programming languages. Basically developer will not use these all in the single program but sometimes programmer needs two or three languages in the single program, it depends on the task If you are developing a website then you will need HTML & CSS and JavaScript, if you are developing a software where you will need to write only Java.

How many types of programming language?

Programming languages are two types: High Level and Low Level

High Level Programming Language

We can say that this language is programmer friendly. It is easy to write and read. Programmers write instructions for a computer using high level programming language. It is less difficult than machine language.

In this, we need a compiler. Compiler is a computer program. Compiler translates the programming language to machine language. In other words, compiler convert high level language to low level language.

Low Level Programming Language

It is knows as machine language. It is native language of the computer. It deals with the entire hardware components of a computer. It is designed to operate computer hardware and it manages the instructions code which is written for a computer directly. It doesn’t need any compiler to run. Machine can understand it easily and can be run very fast. We can say that it is machine friendly language. It’s difficult for programmers that’s why programmers use high level programming language to write a program for the computers.

Types of Low Level Language:

Machine Language
Assembly Language

Machine Language

It is a set of instructions for computer and interact with the hard ware directly. In other words program, written in machine language, is a collection of binary digits means 0 and 1. To write a simple program, you will have to write many 0s and 1s.

Example: We will write first program using binary language. Our first program is ‘HELLO WORLD’ as always.

Capital letters – HELLO WORLD:

   H         E        L        L       O         W        O        R        L 
01001000 01000101 01001100 01001100 01001111  01010111 01001111 01010010 01001100 

   D
01000100

Capitalize – Hello World:

   H         e        l        l      o          W        o         r       l           
01001000 01100101 01101100 01101100 01101111  01010111 01101111 01110010 01101100 
   
   d
01100100

Machine language is easy to understand by the computer.

Capital Letter Alphabet

A: 01000001
B: 01000010
C: 01000011
D: 01000100
E: 01000101
F: 01000110
G: 01000111
H: 01001000
I: 01001001
J: 01001010
K: 01001011
L:01001100
M:01001101
N: 01001110
O: 01001111
P: 01010000
Q: 01010001
R: 01010010
S: 01010010
T: 01010010
U: 01010101
V: 01010110
W: 01010111
X: 01011000
Y: 01011001
Z: 01011010

Small Letter Alphabet

a: 01100001
b: 01100010
c: 01100011
d: 01100100
e: 01100101
f: 01100110
g: 01100111
h: 01101000
i: 01101001
j: 01101010
k: 01101011
l: 01101100
m: 01101101
n: 01101110
o: 01101111
p: 01110000
q: 01110001
r: 01110010
s: 01110011
t: 01110100
u: 01110101
v: 01110110
w: 01110111
x: 01111000
y: 01111001
z: 01111010

1 To 100 Numbers

0: 0
1: 1
2: 10
3: 11
4: 100
5: 101
6: 110
7: 111
8: 1000
9: 1001
10: 1010
11: 1011
12: 1100
13: 1101
14: 1110
15: 1111
16: 10000
17: 10001
18: 10010
19: 10011
20: 10100
21: 10101
22: 10110
23: 10111
24: 11000
25: 11001
26: 11010
27: 11011
28: 11100
29: 11101
30: 11110
31: 11111
32: 100000
33: 100001
34: 100010
35: 100011
36: 100100
37: 100101
38: 100110
39: 100111
40: 101000
41: 101001
42: 101010
43: 101011
44: 101100
45: 101101
46: 101110
47: 101111
48: 110000
49: 110001
50: 110010
51: 110011
52: 110100
53: 110101
54: 110110
55: 110111
56: 111000
57: 111001
58: 111010
59: 111011
60: 111100
61: 111101
62: 111110
63: 111111
64: 1000000
65: 1000001
66: 1000010
67: 1000011
68: 1000100
69: 1000101
70: 1000110
71: 1000111
72: 1001000
73: 1001001
74: 1001010
75: 1001011
76: 1001100
77: 1001101
78: 1001110
79: 1001111
80: 1010000
81: 1010001
82: 1010010
83: 1010011
84: 1010100
85: 1010101
86: 1010110
87: 1010111
88: 1011000
89: 1011001
90: 1011010
91: 1011011
92: 1011100
93: 1011101
94: 1011110
95: 1011111
96: 1100000
97: 1100001
98: 1100010
99: 1100011
100: 1100100

Assembly language

It is a set of instructions for computer and interact with the hardware directly. Assembly language is human friendly and readable unlike machine language which contains 0 and 1 for a program. An assembler is used to convert assembly language to machine code to understand by the computer.

The code of ‘Hello World!’ doesn’t look easy to read but when your code is compiled the output would be readable.

Basically, assembly language divided into three sections:-

1. data: To declare initialized data and it would not be change at runtime.

section.data


2. bss: To declare the variables.

section.bss


3. text: It contains the code where code execution begins.

section.text
  global _start
  _start: